An IoT sensor is an Internet-connected device that can sense and communicate. The Internet of Things is a cyber-physical system consisting of a network of physical things with embedded computers. These intelligent things are commonly referred to as IoT devices. They are connected to the Internet and often interconnected to communicate and interact with their internal states or the external environment. The cyber-physical integration allows information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) to work together and achieve digital transformation of the physical world. Through the use of the IT infrastructure on the Internet, data generated by IoT devices can be gathered and synthesized into actionable insights and collective intelligence which in turn make individual IoT devices smarter and more interoperable. Information exchange and collaboration across a heterogeneous range of physical things transform the way we relate to our environment and enable value-added IoT applications and services such as smart cities, smart buildings, smart homes, and Smart Manufacturing (Industry 4.0).