Fujing Light

LED Street Light-Newest Modular Street Light SL109

Patented pluggable modular design, lumen efficiency >150lm/w, can assemble to street light/floodlight/stadium light.If you have interest, welcome to contact me
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Roadway and Street Lights
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Street lighting emerges as an indispensable element of road infrastructure, playing a pivotal role in enhancing nighttime traffic safety. By fostering an improved visual environment, it empowers drivers to identify potential hazards and traffic conflicts with ample time for appropriate responses, thereby substantially reducing vehicle collisions and pedestrian fatalities. Beyond its immediate safety implications, street lighting serves as a cornerstone of public lighting, offering a wide array of benefits beyond driving concerns. It acts as a deterrent to criminal activities by heightening the fear of detection and instilling a sense of security, consequently bolstering pedestrian confidence. Furthermore, the increased visibility and enhanced public security fostered by street lighting have the potential to invigorate commercial areas, stimulating evening economic activity. Moreover, street lighting contributes to the aesthetic enhancement of urban landscapes, drawing attention to streetscapes and accentuating the architectural elements of surrounding structures. This dual role, encompassing both practical safety measures and aesthetic enrichment, underscores the significance of street lighting as a vital component of urban planning and community development. Ultimately, its multifaceted benefits underscore its irreplaceable role in shaping vibrant, safe, and visually appealing urban environments.

The adoption of LED technology in street lighting offers municipalities and utilities significant benefits in terms of energy efficiency, cost savings, longevity, and environmental impact. LED technology offers much higher source efficacy compared to HID systems. While HPS lamps can achieve around 100 lm/W in real-world applications, LED technology can surpass 200 lm/W commercially available and potentially reach 255 lm/W. When considering system efficacy (which includes optical and ballast losses), LED street lights can achieve well over 140 lm/W, resulting in significant energy savings of 50% to 100% compared to conventional technologies. LED street lights have a much longer operational life, typically exceeding 50,000 hours. This longevity is attributed to their solid-state construction, which eliminates fragile components like glass envelopes found in traditional lamps. Additionally, LED lights are more durable and can withstand vibrations caused by high-speed vehicles, reducing maintenance needs and relamping costs significantly. LEDs emit light directionally, which means less light is wasted compared to HID lamps that emit light in all directions. Coupled with high power conversion efficiencies of LED drivers, this results in higher overall luminaire efficiency, further contributing to energy savings and reducing light pollution.

LEDs can be dimmed using both analog and digital techniques. Analog dimming, based on constant current reduction (CCR), involves adjusting the drive current to the LEDs, allowing for smooth dimming. Digital dimming, achieved through pulse width modulation (PWM), offers full range intensity control while maintaining consistent color output. This flexibility in dimming options contrasts with traditional HPS street lights, which have limited dimming capabilities, usually around 50%, and MH lamps, which are more challenging to dim. LEDs are semiconductor devices that can seamlessly integrate with other solid-state circuits. This compatibility allows for easy implementation of dimming techniques and facilitates integration with other electronic systems. The digital nature of LED lighting systems opens up opportunities for direct integration into computer-based systems. This integration allows for improved efficiency, automation, and advanced control capabilities. For example, LED street lights can be integrated with sensor technology and wireless communication systems, enabling functionalities like adaptive lighting based on real-time data, remote monitoring, and energy optimization. The combination of LED street lighting, sensor technology, and wireless communication forms the basis for the Internet of Things (IoT) applications in urban environments. By integrating street lights into IoT networks, cities can unlock a wide range of innovative capabilities, such as smart city infrastructure, traffic management, environmental monitoring, and public safety enhancements.

LED technology offers the flexibility to tailor lighting solutions to specific requirements, allowing for the optimization of spectral characteristics to meet varying needs without compromising efficiency or performance. LEDs can be customized by adjusting the ratio of phosphors to target specific spectral characteristics optimized for different driving conditions. For example, modifying the light spectrum to enhance scotopic vision can improve visibility of off-axis objects, while maintaining good color rendition for cones to distinguish small objects from backgrounds. The human eye contains two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Rods are responsible for night vision (scotopic vision), while cones are active under normal daylight conditions (photopic vision). Mesopic vision falls between scotopic and photopic vision and is relevant to many street lighting scenarios. The sensitivity of rods and cones peaks at different wavelengths: 507 nm for scotopic vision and 555 nm for photopic vision. The scotopic/photopic (S/P) ratio of a light source is crucial for visual performance, especially in mesopic vision. LED street lights can be tuned to offer a higher S/P ratio compared to traditional HPS lamps, thus enhancing visual performance in various lighting conditions. While a higher S/P ratio can improve visibility, excessive blue light in the spectrum can lead to concerns about the physiological impact of high-intensity, high-CCT (Correlated Color Temperature) street lighting. For roadway lighting, a balance between sufficient blue content for visibility and minimizing potential negative physiological effects is necessary. LED street lights with a color temperature around 4100 K are typically recommended for highways, while warmer color temperatures (around 3000 K) are suggested for densely populated or residential areas to minimize negative physiological impacts.

A typical LED street light features a two-piece die-cast housing comprising a canopy and a frame. The canopy houses the LED assembly and electrical components in separate cavities, while corresponding cavities in the frame form enclosed compartments when hinged together with the canopy. The bottom cavity of the LED compartment typically includes a clear tempered flat glass lens, sealed to the frame with an extruded one-piece gasket and secured with metal clips. The LED assembly is mounted flat onto the heat-sinking surface of the canopy, with the option of additional sealing for enhanced ingress protection. The electrical compartment accommodates various components such as LED drivers, control gears, surge protection modules, and terminal blocks, typically mounted onto a gear tray for simplified maintenance. Safety measures include a safety switch in the electrical compartment to disconnect power upon opening. The hinged assembly of the canopy and frame is sealed with a master gasket and equipped with quick-release latches, enabling easy, tool-less access to both electrical and LED compartments for maintenance purposes. This design ensures efficient operation, protection against environmental factors, and simplified maintenance procedures for LED street lighting systems. LED street lights utilizing modular light engines consist of an electrical compartment and a frame designed to accommodate a scalable number of these engines. Modular light engines are essentially waterproof LED modules that integrate the LED array, optical lens, and heat sink into a single unit. This modular design offers versatility, allowing for the adaptation of LED street lighting to various roadway applications. By providing the flexibility to adjust the number of modules according to specific lighting requirements, modular light engines offer an efficient and adaptable solution for illuminating different types of roadways while maintaining high performance and durability.

LED street lights are typically operated by constant current LED drivers. These drivers ensure that the LED receives a consistent forward current within design parameters, regardless of fluctuations in supply voltage or other operating conditions. This is crucial because even small variations in LED forward voltage can cause significant changes in current, impacting brightness and potentially leading to LED failure if exceeded. Most LED street lights use SMPS LED drivers, which generate DC power by rapidly switching a power transistor on and off at high frequencies. This pulsed waveform is then smoothed using energy storage elements like capacitors or inductors. A feedback circuit continuously adjusts the output to maintain the desired current level, ensuring stable illumination. While SMPS LED drivers offer high power conversion efficiency, they also produce high-frequency pulse noise, necessitating additional design considerations to meet electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements. Some low-end LED street lights may incorporate linear power supplies to reduce costs. These linear converters regulate current by dropping voltage from input to output, but they waste considerable electrical power in the process, resulting in lower overall circuit efficiency compared to SMPS drivers. Linear power supplies also have poor immunity to electrical overstresses (EOS) and cannot compensate for input voltage drops below output voltage, limiting their versatility. While linear power supplies may offer cost advantages upfront due to simplicity and reduced EMI circuitry, their lower efficiency and susceptibility to electrical overstresses can lead to increased long-term costs and potential LED system failures. Thus, opting for linear power supplies solely to undercut prices may prove short-sighted and financially detrimental in the long run.

Street lights are vulnerable to damage from voltage surges in both differential and common modes. Transient surge events are brief bursts of extra energy, lasting only microseconds. These surges can be caused by various factors such as lightning strikes, electrical switching events, or electrostatic discharges. A differential mode surge occurs between the line-neutral (L-N) and line-line (L-L) terminals of a luminaire, while a common mode surge occurs between phase cores to earth (L-G) and neutral core to earth (N-G). To safeguard street lighting systems against transient surges, surge protection devices (SPDs) are installed in key locations such as the main distribution cabinet, cable junction boxes, and within the luminaire itself. These devices help divert excess energy away from the lighting system, preventing damage to sensitive components. Common mode surges typically carry larger energy pulses than differential mode surges. Therefore, SPDs installed in luminaires should ideally provide full mode protection, capable of safeguarding against both common and differential mode surges. These SPDs should be capable of handling overvoltages up to 20 kV in common mode and 10 kV in differential mode to ensure comprehensive protection against transient surge events.

The choice of dimming method and protocol depends on factors such as the desired dimming range, control flexibility, and compatibility with existing lighting infrastructure. While CCR dimming is straightforward and cost-effective, PWM dimming offers finer control over light levels, and protocols like 0-10V and DALI provide compatibility and advanced functionality for street lighting applications. CCR dimming, also known as analog dimming, regulates the current flowing continuously to the LEDs to adjust the light output. This method is simple to implement and cost-effective compared to pulse-width modulation (PWM) digital dimming. CCR dimming also offers advantages such as a higher output voltage limit for UL Class 2 devices and EMI-free operation. However, LEDs may not perform optimally at very low currents, typically below 10%, limiting the dimming range of CCR dimming. PWM dimming regulates the duty cycle of energy applied to the LED load, providing a smooth full range dimming profile. This method is suitable for applications where precise control over light levels is required, especially at low intensities. Currently, the most widely used dimming protocol in street lighting is the 0-10V (or 1-10V) dimming protocol. Dimmable LED drivers supporting this protocol can be easily integrated with standard lighting components such as sensors and controllers, enabling high-level light control. DALI (Digital Addressable Lighting Interface) is another popular dimming protocol in outdoor lighting applications. It uses a logarithmic dimming curve and provides distributed intelligence, allowing for precise and flexible control of LED street lights.

Many modern LED street lights incorporate sensors for various purposes. By adjusting the light output based on external factors such as ambient light levels or occupancy, energy can be conserved during times when full illumination is unnecessary, leading to significant energy savings. Control mechanisms also contribute to enhancing comfort levels for pedestrians and motorists. By allowing for precise adjustments in light levels, lighting conditions can be tailored to meet specific needs, providing sufficient illumination for safety while minimizing glare or light pollution, thus improving overall comfort. LED street lights offer digital controllability, which allows for seamless interaction with various sensors and electronic logic circuits. This capability enables adaptive or intelligent lighting control, where street lights can dynamically adjust their brightness or color temperature in response to changing environmental conditions or user preferences. LED street lights can interface with a variety of sensors, such as motion sensors, ambient light sensors, or weather sensors. These sensors provide real-time data on factors like pedestrian movement, ambient light levels, or weather conditions, allowing street lights to dynamically adapt their lighting output accordingly. With digital controllability, LED street lights can implement adaptive or intelligent lighting control strategies. For example, lights can dim during periods of low pedestrian activity or automatically increase brightness in response to detected motion or reduced ambient light levels. This not only saves energy but also enhances safety and comfort for users.

LED street lights may be equipped with control systems that allow for remote monitoring and management of the lighting infrastructure. These control systems can communicate with each light fixture, enabling functionalities such as on/off scheduling, dimming control, fault detection, and performance monitoring. They may also integrate with smart city platforms to enable advanced functionalities like adaptive lighting based on real-time data analytics. Some LED street lights feature communication interfaces such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or cellular connectivity, allowing them to connect to a central management system or network. These interfaces facilitate remote control, monitoring, and data exchange, enabling centralized management of the lighting infrastructure. Street light controllers serve as pivotal components in managing urban lighting systems. Traditionally, they were characterized by predetermined behaviors, typically controlled by microprocessors, ASICs, or FPGAs. Communication with other systems like data loggers, CMS, or IoT platforms was primarily achieved through dedicated wires or PLC, ensuring reliability but with higher initial costs. However, the advent of wireless network connectivity has ushered in a new era of possibilities. This enables cost-effective distributed intelligence architectures, empowering LED street lights to autonomously respond to wireless inputs or internal programs. As cities embrace the IoT to deliver diverse applications, street light controllers are evolving towards greater intelligence. They are now equipped with features to foster synergistic, dynamic, and context-aware interactions. This evolution not only enhances efficiency in energy consumption and maintenance but also contributes to the creation of smarter and more responsive urban environments. Thus, street light controllers stand at the forefront of urban innovation, bridging the gap between traditional infrastructure and the connected cities of the future.

The distribution of light from a street light is influenced by various factors such as road geometrics, road type, luminaire position, and orientation. Among these factors, road geometrics emerge as the primary determinant shaping the beam pattern of the luminaire. The layout, width, curvature, and elevation of the road significantly impact how light is distributed along its surface. The geometry of the road plays a significant role in determining how light is distributed along its surface. For example, a wide, straight road may require different lighting distribution compared to a narrow, winding street to ensure adequate illumination of the entire roadway and surrounding areas. Different types of roads, such as highways, residential streets, or pedestrian walkways, have distinct lighting requirements based on factors like traffic volume, speed limits, and surrounding land use. The type of road influences the optimal distribution of light to provide sufficient visibility and safety for road users. Roadway luminaires can be categorized based on their lateral (sideways) and transverse (across the road) light distributions. Lateral distribution refers to how light is spread along the length of the road, while transverse distribution describes how light is spread across the width of the road. Different types of luminaires are designed to achieve specific distributions tailored to the needs of different road geometries and types. Secondary optics play a crucial role in shaping the beam pattern of LED street lights to meet specific photometric requirements efficiently. Reflectors and lenses are the two primary types of light distribution components used in street lighting systems. Reflectors, commonly employed in conventional street lights and some LED products, regulate luminous flux through reflection from coated metal or plastic surfaces with high reflectance. However, contemporary LED street lights predominantly utilize lenses to achieve precise light distribution patterns. Among lens types, secondary lenses for LED street lights often utilize total internal reflection (TIR) to guide light rays to the desired target. Unlike optical reflectors, TIR optics control the entire initial light distribution from the source, ensuring precise optical control and high light extraction efficiency. Optical engineering of LED street lights aims to deliver a precisely controlled beam pattern, minimizing glare, ensuring adequate vertical illuminance for tasks like facial recognition and pedestrian security, achieving high luminance uniformity on road surfaces, maintaining expected surrounding ratios, and maximizing optical efficiency to make the most of LED emissions.

Roadway and street lights are constructed and built with specific features and materials to endure various environmental factors commonly encountered outdoors. Roadway and street lights are typically made from robust materials such as aluminum or die-cast metal, which can withstand exposure to weather elements like rain, wind, and temperature fluctuations. These materials offer structural integrity and protection against physical impacts, ensuring the longevity of the lighting fixtures. Roadway and street lights are engineered to withstand vibrations caused by passing vehicles, wind, or other sources. They are built with sturdy mounting mechanisms and shock-absorbing features to prevent damage or displacement due to constant movement or impact. Ensuring high IP ratings, implementing breathing membrane solutions, and using durable coatings are essential strategies to protect LED street lights from moisture, dust, and other environmental factors. These measures are critical for maintaining the performance and longevity of LED street lights in outdoor applications. By effectively sealing out moisture and dust, regulating pressure differentials within the luminaire enclosure, and providing robust protection against corrosion and abrasion, LED street lights can remain reliable and efficient over their operational lifespan. Overall, these strategies contribute to the sustainability and effectiveness of outdoor lighting systems, ensuring safe and well-lit environments for communities and road users.

The momentum behind the advancement of smart street lighting acts as a catalyst for the broader rejuvenation of aging city infrastructure and fuels ongoing innovations in smart city development and the Internet of Things. Many cities around the world have aging infrastructure, including outdated street lighting systems. The adoption of smart street lighting serves as an opportunity to not only upgrade these systems but also to modernize other aspects of city infrastructure that may be in need of renovation. This can include improvements to transportation networks, utilities, public facilities, and more. Smart street lighting is just one component of a broader trend towards creating smart cities, where various urban systems are interconnected and optimized through data-driven technologies. By implementing intelligent lighting solutions, cities can lay the foundation for more comprehensive smart city initiatives, such as traffic management systems, environmental monitoring, waste management, and public safety enhancements. Smart street lighting systems can be integrated into the IoT ecosystem, allowing them to communicate with other urban infrastructure components, sensors, and devices. This integration facilitates real-time monitoring, remote management, and data-driven decision-making, leading to more responsive and sustainable city operations.

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